Friday, January 27, 2012

INDIRECT SPEECH : Questions (Kalimat Pertanyaan)


Oleh : Drs. Tony Sartono Asmara

Kalimat pertanyaan ada 2 jenis, yaitu :

1. Yes-No Question. Cirinya dimulai dengan Do, Does, Did, Is, Am,  Are, Was,
     Were, Shall, Will, Can, May,  Must, dsb.
    Contoh :

                        John :`Did you lose your pen yesterday, Mary?'

2. Wh-Question. Cirinya dimulai dengan kata-kata tanya, seperti   : When,
    Where, Why, Who, Whom, Which, How, dsb.
    Contoh :

                        John :`When did you lose your pen, Mary?'

Perubahan-perubahan menjadi kalimat tidak langsungnya adalah sebagai berikut :

a. YES-NO QUESTION

Ketentuan perubahan-perubahannya adalah sebagai berikut :

    a. Kata  kerja  pengantar yang digunakan  adalah  : asked, inquired,
        wondered, wanted to know, dsb  
    b. Kata penghubung yang digunakan adalah: if atau whether yang berarti
        apakah.
    c. Kata penghubung if/whether harus diikuti S + P + O
    d. Kata kerja bantu do, does, did, tidak  digunakan lagi.
    e. Perubahan  bentuk  kata  kerja  (tenses),  kata ganti, keterangan tempat
        dan keterangan  waktu sama seperti  pada perubahan kalimat pernyata-
        an tak langsung.

Contoh :
                        John, `Did you lose your pen yesterday, Mary ?‘

Bila kita ingin mengulang kembali pertanyaan John untuk disampaikan kepada orang lain, maka di dalam bahasa Indonesia kita katakan :

                        John bertanya kepada Mary apakah dia kehilangan pulpennya
                        kemarin.

Perhatikan pengungkapannya di dalam bahasa Inggris.

                        John asked Mary if she had lost her pen the previous day

                                                                   atau

                        John asked Mary whether she had lost her pen the previous
                       day.

Berikut ini adalah perubahan-perubahan tenses dari kalimat pertanyaan langsung menjadi kalimat pertanyaan tidak langsung  berikut contoh-contohnya.

Kalimat Langsung                                          Kalimat Tak Langsung

     Simple Present Tense                                 Simple Past Tense

      John,`Do you water the flowers every morning, Mira?'
  = John asked Mira if she watered the flowers every morning.

   2. Present Continuous Tense                        Past Continuous
                                                                         Tense

      John,`Are you watering the flowers now, Mira?‘
   = John asked Mira if she was watering the flowers then.

   3. Simple Past Tense                                    Past Perfect Tense

      John,`Did you water the flowers yesterday, MIra?'
   = John asked Mira if she had watered the flowers  the     
      day  before.

  4. Past Continuous Tense                              Past Perfect Continuous    
                                                                          Tense

       John,`Were  you  watering the flowers at 7  last Sunday, Mira?” 
   = John asked Mira if she had been watering the flowers at 7 the previous
      Sunday.

  5. Present Perfect Tense                               Past Perfect Tense

       John,`Have you watered the flowers, Mira?'
    = John asked Mira if she had watered the flowers.

   6. Present Perfect                                        Past Perfect
      Continuous Tense                                     Continuous Tense

      John,`Have you been watering the flowers for 2 ours, Mira?'
  = John asked Mira if she had been watering the flowers for 2 hours.

   7. Future Tense                                            Conditional

        John,`Will you water the flowers tomorrow, Mira?
    = John  asked Mira if she would water the flowers the  next day.

  8. Future Continuous Tense                          Conditional Continuous

       John,`Will you  be watering  the  flowers  at  7  o'clock
       tomorrow, Mira?'
    = John asked Mira if she would be watering the flowers at 7 o'clock the
       following day.

   9. Modals : Can, May,                                   Could, Might,
       Must, Have/Has to                                    Had to

       John,`Can you water the flowers tomorrow, Mira?'
   =  John asked Mira if she could water the flowers the next day

LATIHAN

TASK-1

Change into Indirect speech!

1. Rudi, “Do you want to come to my house, Nita?”
2. Nani, “Did you take my book to your house, Andi?”
3. Tia, “Were you tired and hungry yesterday, John?”
4. Dodi, “Have you done your homework, Tuti?”
5. Dina, “Are you planning to go to Bali again, Bob?”
6. Bobi, “Were you studying at 8 o’clock last night, Tina?”
7. Mirna, “Will you come to my house tomorrow, Rudi?”
8. Riza, “Can you help me do the homework now, Nani?”
9. Mr.Rudi, “Have you been waiting in my room since 6 o’clock, Tina?”
10. Dani, “Does your father work in a factory, Reni?”

TASK-2

Change into Indirect speech!

1. John,`Have you understood the instructions, Yanti?'
2. Rudi,`Does Titi live in Bandung, John?'
3. Yudi,`Has my sister arrived home, Runi?'
4. Tono,`Must I leave you alone, Rita?'
5. Mira,`Will Herman come to see me tonight, Bob?'
6. The students,`Are the tests very difficult, Mr.John?'
7. Mr Hasan,`Is the train bound for Jakarta, Prio?'
8. Reni,`Did you come to the party last night, Mulyadi?'
9. Yusuf,`Were your parents angry with you last night, Rini?
10. Mr Bahrun,`Did the students know all the answers  to the questions, Mr Bob?'

b. Wh-QUESTION

Ketentuan perubahan-perubahannya adalah sebagai berikut :

   a. Kata kerja pengantar yang digunakan adalah :  asked, inquired,
       wondered, wanted to know.                                                       
   b. Kata kerja  pengantar harus diikuti kata penghubung yang berasal dari kata
       tanya yang digunakan  pada kalimat langsungnya.                            
   c. Kata penghubungnya harus diikuti S + P + O
   d. Kata penghubung if/whether tidak boleh digunakan
   e. Perubahan-perubahan lainnya sama dengan ketentuan yang terdapat 
       pada kalimat pernyataan

Contoh :                                         
                        John, “When did you lose your pen, Mary ?”

Bila kita ingin mengulang kembali pertanyaan John untuk disampai-kan kepada orang lain, maka di dalam bahasa Indonesia kita katakan :

                        John bertanya kepada Mary kapan dia kehilangan pulpennya

Perhatikan pengungkapannya di dalam bahasa Inggris.

                        John asked Mary when she had lost her pen.

Contoh lain:                                                                
                            John, “Where is your pen, Mary ?”                
                            John asked Mary where her pen was.

Berikut ini adalah perubahan-perubahan tenses dari kalimat pertanyaan  langsung  yang menggunakan kata  tanya  menjadi  kalimat pertanyaan tidak langsung berikut contoh-contohnya.

Kalimat Langsung                                          Kalimat Tak Langsung

1. Simple Present Tense                                    Simple Past Tense

       John,`When do you water the flowers, Mira?'
    = John asked Mira when she watered the flowers.

2. Present Continuous Tense                             Past Continuous
                                                                           Tense

       John,`Why are you watering the flowers now, Mira?'
    = John asked Mira why she was watering the flowers then.

3. Simple Past Tense                                        Past Perfect Tense

       John,`When did you water the flowers, Mira?'
   =  John asked Mira when she had watered the flowers.

 4.  Past Continuous Tense                             Past Perfect Continuous
                                                                        Tense

      John,`What time were you watering the flowers last week,  
                Mira?” 
  = John  asked  Mira  what time  she  had  been  watering the flowers the
      previous week.

 5.  Present Perfect Tense                                Past Perfect Tense

      John,`With whom have you watered the flowers, Mira?'
   = John asked Mira with whom she had watered the flowers.

 6.   Present Perfect                                          Past Perfect
      Continuous Tense                                       Continuous Tense

      John,`How long have you been watering the flowers, Mira?'
   = John asked Mira how long she had been watering the flowers.

7. Future Tense                                                Conditional

       John,`When will you water the flowers, Mira?'
    = John asked Mira when she would water the flowers.

8. Future Continuous Tense                            Conditional Continuous

      John,`What time will you be watering the flowers tomorrow, Mira?'
  = John asked Mira what time she would be watering the flowers the
     following day.

9. Modals : Can, May,                                       Could, Might,
    Must, Have/Has to                                        Had to

      John,`When can you water the flowers, Mira?'
    = John asked  Mira  when she could water the flowers

LATIHAN

TASK-1

Change into Indirect speech!

1. The  teacher `Why were you late for school this morning, Lina?'
2. John,`Where will the next Sea Games be held?'
3. Rudi,`How did the thief get into the house?'
4. Mira,`When are you leaving for Surabaya, John?'
5. Nani,`Whom  will they nominate President of the club?' 
6. Santi,`When will you return the book that I lent you, Bob?
7. Bob,`How did the students manage to finish the test so quickly?'
8. Ina,`Where does Heru work?'
9. Tia,`Where does Anita usually go during the week-ends?'
10.Boni, `What do they think of the new plans?'

TASK-2

Change into Indirect speech!

1. Bram,` How often do you visit the library, Mira?'
2. Mira asked Bill,`Did you see the film on TV last night?'
3. `Do you want to go with me?' Beni asked Jane
4. Susan,`What time will you wait for me here, Bob?'
5. `Is your brother working in this factory?'Mary asked  John
6. Bobi asked Mirna,`When did you meet my brother?'
7. `Can your brother come to my house tomorrow?' Yudi asked Tanti
8. Tia  asked  Roni,`Does  Tuti invite us  to  her  birthday 
    party tonight?'
9. `Are the books on the table yours?' Riki asked Nina
10. Zeni asked Tira,`Shall we wait for him any longer?' 



Selamat Belajar

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